LinkedInMike Clay

Mike Clay

Seeking new opportunities

Indianapolis, Indiana Area
  1. Consultant,
  2. Ivy Tech Community College
  1. Cook Pharmica,
  2. Eli Lilly and Company

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Seeking new opportunities

– Present

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Seeking new opportunities

– Present (1 year 10 months)

Currently in transition and seeking new opportunities

Adjunct Faculty

Ivy Tech Community College
– Present (1 year 3 months)Indianapolis

Teach college chemistry.

Analytical Scientist

Cook Pharmica
(2 years 6 months)Bloomington, Indiana Area

Bioanalytical chemist for small biotechnology contract manufacturer. Responsible for product release, purity/stability determinations, degradation studies, method transfers from external clients. QC analytical technology specialist responsible for development and validation of analytical methods for GMP laboratories. Troubleshoot existing procedures using continuous improvement methodologies. Write detailed technical reports and analytical method SOPs. Techniques include LC/MS, peptide mapping, oligosaccharide mapping, HPLC, ELISA, Western blot, SDS-PAGE, capillary IEF. Order materials, train employees. Responsible for compliance with GMP procedures and good documentation of work, summary reports.

Study Director / Principal Investigator - Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics

Eli Lilly and Company
(19 years 10 months)Indianapolis, Indiana Area

Design and conduct animal studies and in vitro studies to elucidate absorption, metabolism and drug distribution to support pre-clinical drug discovery using LCMS. Quantify drugs, metabolites and biomarkers in complex matrices (plasma/urine/tissues/bile). In vitro studies of metabolism (CYP450, reactive metabolite). Conduct PK screening, bioavailability studies, radioactivity, TK studies in rodents, dogs and monkeys. Analysis and reporting of preclinical drug studies for IND submissions. Present results to teams and make decisions based on the data and objectives. Write IND submissions to the FDA. Operate under tight timelines and budgets to develop analytical methods to meet study needs. Familiar with Watson/Analyst/Sequest/LIMS and other software. Six sigma process green belt experience. Major accomplishments include all drug disposition work for Evista (osteoporosis) which led to a successful IND, and bioanalytical support for compound LY2784544, a small-molecule JAK2 inhibitor, an investigational compound for breast carcinoma, polycythemia vera and others.


Azetidinones as vasopressin V1a antagonists(Link)

Bioorg Med Chem. 2007 Mar 1;15(5):2054-80. Epub 2006 Dec 23

The azetidinone LY307174 (1) was identified as a screening lead for the vasopressin V1a receptor (IC50 45 nM at the human V1a receptor) based on molecular similarity to ketoconazole (2), a known antagonist of the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone receptor. Structure-activity relationships for the series were explored to optimize receptor affinity and pharmacokinetic properties, resulting in compounds with Ki values <1nM and brain levels after oral dosing approximately 100-fold higher than receptor affinities.

Dipeptides as Effective Prodrugs of the Unnatural Amino Acid (+)-2-Aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic Acid (LY354740), a Selective Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Agonist(Link)

J. Med. Chem., 2005, 48 (16), pp 5305–5320

LY354740, is a highly potent and selective agonist for group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu receptors 2 and 3) tested in clinical trials. It has been shown to block anxiety in the fear-potentiated startle model. Its relatively low bioavailability in different animal species drove the need for an effective prodrug form that would produce a therapeutic response at lower doses for the treatment of anxiety disorders. We have investigated the increase of intestinal absorption of this compound by targeting the human peptide transporter hPepT1 for active transport of di- and tripeptides derived from 1. We have found that oral administration of an N dipeptide derivative of 1 (12a) in rats shows up to an 8-fold increase in drug absorption and a 300-fold increase in potency in the fear-potentiated startle model in rats when compared with the parent drug

Synthesis and Structure−Activity Relationships of Novel Arylpiperazines as Potent and Selective Agonists of the Melanocortin Subtype-4 Receptor(Link)

J. Med. Chem., 2004, 47 (3), pp 744–755

The melanocortin receptors have been implicated as potential targets for a number of important therapeutic indications, including inflammation, sexual dysfunction, and obesity. We identified compound 1, an arylpiperazine attached to the dipeptide H-d-Tic-d-p-Cl-Phe-OH, as a novel melanocortin subtype-4 receptor (MC4R) agonist through iterative directed screening of nonpeptidyl G-protein-coupled receptor biased libraries. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies demonstrated that substitutions at the ortho position of the aryl ring improved binding and functional potency. For example, the o-isopropyl-substituted compound 29 (K(i) = 720 nM) possessed 9-fold better binding affinity compared to the unsubstituted aryl ring (K(i) = 6600 nM). Sulfonamide 39 (K(i) = 220 nM) fills this space with a polar substituent, resulting in a further 2-fold improvement in binding affinity. The most potent compounds such as the diethylamine 44 (K(i) = 60 nM) contain a basic group at this position. Basic heterocycles such as the imidazole 50 (K(i) = 110 nM) were similarly effective. We also demonstrated good oral bioavailability for sulfonamide

LY503430: Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, and Effects in Rodent Models of Parkinson’s Disease(Link)

CNS Drug Reviews, 11, 1, pp. 77-96 (2005)

Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the brain. Recent developments in the molecular biology and pharmacology of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-subtype of glutamate receptors have led to the discovery of selective, potent and systemically active AMPA receptor potentiators. These molecules enhance synaptic transmission and play important roles in plasticity and cognitive processes. In the present studies we characterized a novel AMPA receptor potentiator, LY503430, on recombinant human GLU(A1-4) and native preparations in vitro, and then evaluated the potential neuroprotective effects of the molecule in rodent models of Parkinson's disease. Results indicated that at submicromolar concentrations LY503430 selectively enhanced glutamate-induced calcium influx into HEK293 cells transfected with human GLU(A1), GLU(A2), GLU(A3), or GLU(A4) AMPA receptors. The molecule also potentiated AMPA-mediated responses in native cortical, hippocampal and substantia nigra neurones. LY503430 had good oral bioavailability in both rats and dogs. We also report here that LY503430 provided dose-dependent functional and histological protection in animal models of Parkinson's disease. The neurotoxicity following unilateral infusion of 6-hyrdoxydopamine (6-OHDA) into either the substantia nigra or the striatum of rats and that following systemic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in mice were reduced. Interestingly, LY503430 also had neurotrophic actions on functional and histological outcomes when treatment was delayed until well after (6 or 14 days) the lesion was established. LY503430 also produced some increase in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the substantia nigra and a dose-dependent increase in growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) expression in the striatum. Therefore, we propose that AMPA receptor potentiators such as LY503430 offer the potential of a new disease modifying therapy for Parkinson's disease.

Synthesis and biological evaluation of an orally active ghrelin agonist that stimulates food consumption and adiposity in rats(Link)

CNS Drug Reviews, 11, 1, pp. 77-96 (2005)

2-(2-Amino-2-methyl-propionylamino)-5-phenyl-pentanoic acid [1-[1-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-1-methyl-2-oxo-2-pyrrolidin-1-yl-ethyl]-1H-imidazol-4-yl]-amide (LY444711, 6) is an orally active ghrelin agonist that binds with high affinity to and is a potent activator of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) receptor. In rat models of feeding behavior and pharmacology, 6 creates a positive energy balance and induces adiposity by stimulating food consumption and sparing fat utilization. As an orally active ghrelin agonist, 6 represents a new pharmacological tool to investigate the orexigenic role of ghrelin in regulating energy homeostasis.

Synthesis and biological evaluation of an orally active ghrelin agonist that stimulates food consumption and adiposity in rats.(Link)

Bioorg. And Med.Chem.Letters 14 (2004): 5873-5876

2-(2-Amino-2-methyl-propionylamino)-5-phenyl-pentanoic acid [1-[1-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-1-methyl-2-oxo-2-pyrrolidin-1-yl-ethyl]-1H-imidazol-4-yl]-amide (LY444711, 6) is an orally active ghrelin agonist that binds with high affinity to and is a potent activator of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) receptor. In rat models of feeding behavior and pharmacology, 6 creates a positive energy balance and induces adiposity by stimulating food consumption and sparing fat utilization. As an orally active ghrelin agonist, 6 represents a new pharmacological tool to investigate the orexigenic role of ghrelin in regulating energy homeostasis.

Substituted 3-Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl- 4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-[1,4]diazepino- [6,7,1-hi]indol-7-yl)pyrrole-2,5-diones as Highly Selective and Potent Inhibitors of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3(Link)

J. Med. Chem., 2004, 47 (16), pp 3934–3937

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is involved in signaling from the insulin receptor. Inhibitors of GSK3 are expected to effect lowering of plasma glucose similar to insulin, making GSK3 an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Herein we report the discovery of a series of potent and selective GSK3 inhibitors. Compounds 7-12 show oral activity in an in vivo model of type II diabetes, and 9 and 12 have desirable PK properties.

Intra- and interstrain differences in models of "behavioral despair(Link)

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001 Oct-Nov;70(2-3):187-92

In the present studies, base line and drug-induced performance of two mouse strains (C57Bl/6 and NIH-Swiss) was evaluated in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Intra- and interstrain comparisons indicate that the biological substrates mediating performance in these behavioral procedures are not identical. For example, in NIH-Swiss mice, a sevenfold difference in base line immobility was observed between the FST and TST. By contrast, the base line immobility in C57Bl/6 mice was similar in both procedures. Further, in C57Bl/6 mice, imipramine produced a "U-shaped" dose-response curve in the FST, whilst no evidence of a biphasic response was present in the TST at doses up to 45 mg/kg. In the FST, the AMPA receptor potentiator LY451646 produced a similar dose-response relationship in C57Bl/6 and NIH-Swiss mice, but the minimum effect dose (MED) was fivefold higher in NIH-Swiss mice. This potency difference appears due to both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors. These intra- and interstrain differences in performance indicate that despite a face value similarity, the neurochemical pathways involved in mediating performance in these two widely used tests are not identical.

Antidepressant-like actions of an AMPA receptor potentiator (LY392098)(Link)

Neuropharmacology. 2001 Jun;40(8):1028-33

LY392098 is a member of a novel class of biarylpropylsulfonamides that potentiates AMPA receptor-mediated responses both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the effects of LY392098 were evaluated in two "behavioral despair" models (the forced swim and tail suspension tests) commonly used to identify clinically useful antidepressants. LY392098 reduced immobility in the forced swim test in both rats and mice, with a minimum effective dose of 0.5 mg/kg (i.p.) in both species. LY392098 (0.1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect motor activity of rats, indicating that the ability of this compound to reduce immobility in the forced swim test is unrelated to a motor stimulant action. LY392098 also reduced immobility in the tail suspension test in a dose-dependent manner, with a minimum effective dose of 5 mg/kg (i.p). A non-competitive AMPA antagonist (LY300168) blocked the activity of LY392098 in the forced swim test, but did not affect imipramine-induced reductions in immobility. Thus, AMPA receptor activation appears to be required for the antidepressant-like effect of LY392098, but not imipramine. These findings indicate that biarylpropylsulfonamides, exemplified by LY392098, may represent a novel class of antidepressants.

Application of oral bioavailability surrogates in the design of orally active inhibitors of rhinovirus replication(Link)

J Pharm Sci. 1999 Aug;88(8):747-53

Previous studies in rats and humans demonstrated poor oral bioavailability of potent in vitro 2-aminobenzimidazole inhibitors of rhinovirus replication due to significant first-pass elimination and possibly also to poor aqueous solubility. Estimations of aqueous solubility, as well as measurements of caco-2 permeability and NADPH dependent compound loss in rat liver microsomal incubations were employed alongside traditional in vivo experiments in rats to guide subsequent chemistry efforts. Retention of activity upon replacement of the metabolically labile vinyl oxime in the lead molecule with a vinyl carboxamide was a major breakthrough; however, oral bioavailability among the latter compounds was variable. Based on the ability to independently measure solubility, permeability, and metabolic stability of new compounds, variable solubility across the series (ranging from approximately 1 to 10 microg/mL) was identified as the cause of the inconsistent performance. Subsequent efforts to improve solubility led to the discovery of highly soluble (>10 mg/mL) and potent dessulfonyl vinyl carboxamide benzimidazoles. Determination of the metabolic stability of these compounds as a surrogate of the extent of their first-pass elimination supported a prediction of excellent oral bioavailability. In comparison to the sulfonyl-containing vinyl carboxamides, caco-2 permeabilities were reduced 5 to 10-fold; however, these were considered to be in the range of well-absorbed compounds based on comparison to a series of reference compounds of known percentage absorption in humans. Subsequent experiments in the rat verified the oral bioavailability of these N-alkyl compounds, with one compound (368177) having an absolute oral bioavailability of 89.4%

Stereoselective metabolism of tazofelone, an anti-inflammatory bowel disease agent, in rats and dogs and in human liver microsomes.(Link)

Chirality. 1999;11(3):233-40

Incubation of (R)-tazofelone and (S)-tazofelone in rat, dog, and human liver microsomes demonstrated that the (R)-tazofelone enantiomer was more rapidly metabolized, with two diastereomeric sulfoxides as the major metabolites formed in all three species. The two diasteresomers epimerized at physiological pH, therefore total sulfoxide formation rates were measured. The formation of the total sulfoxide metabolites followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The K(m), Vmax, and intrinsic formation clearance (Vmax/K(m)) values were determined in rat, dog, and human liver microsomes. The intrinsic formation clearance of sulfoxide from (R)-tazofelone exceeded that of (S)-tazofelone in all three species. In vivo studies in rats and dogs dosed orally and intravenously confirmed the stereoselective metabolism of tazofelone observed in vitro. Plasma concentrations of (S)-tazofelone exceeded (R)-tazofelone in rats and dogs by a factor of 3 to 4. In rat portal plasma, both enantiomers were of approximately equal concentration after oral dosing, indicating similar absorption. The half-lives of tazofelone and total sulfoxides in rats were 3.5 and 2.8 h, respectively. In dogs, the half-lives of tazofelone and total sulfoxides were 2.2 and 5.5 h, respectively. Plasma clearance was 2.3 l/h in rats and 1.4 l/h in dogs, and the volumes of distribution were 12 and 4.5 l, respectively, in rats and dogs. Both enantiomers were highly bound to plasma proteins to a similar extent in both species.

In vitro biotransformation and identification of human cytochrome P450 isozyme-dependent metabolism of tazofelone(Link)

Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 Dec;25(12):1383-8

Tazofelone is a new inflammatory bowel disease agent. The biotransformation of tazofelone in human livers and the cytochrome P450 responsible for the biotransformation has been studied. Two metabolites of tazofelone were formed in vitro. A sulfoxide metabolite was identified by cochromatography with authentic standards, and a quinol metabolite of tazofelone was identified by mass spectrometry and proton NMR. Sulfoxidation was catalyzed by a single enzyme system while formation of the quinol metabolite was catalyzed by a two enzyme system. The Km and Vmax values for sulfoxidation were 12.4 microM and 0.27 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The high affinity Km and Vmax values for the formation of the quinol metabolite were 7.5 microM and 0.17 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Tazofelone was incubated at 20 microM concentration with human microsomes to determine which of the cytochrome P450 isozyme(s) is involved in the oxidation of tazofelone. A strong correlation was found between the immunoquantified concentrations of CYP3A and the rates of formation of the sulfoxide and quinol metabolites of tazofelone. Similarly, significant correlations were observed between the formation of midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and the rates of formation of both metabolites of tazofelone. Inhibition studies have indicated that triacetyloleandomycin, a CYP3A specific inhibitor, almost completely inhibited the formation of both of these tazofelone metabolites. Incubations with specific cDNA expressed microsomes indicated that the formation of both the sulfoxide and quinol metabolites was highest with CYP3A4 containing microsomes. The correlation data was confirmed by inhibition studies and cDNA expressed cytochrome P450 systems demonstrating that the biotransformation of tazofelone to its metabolites is primarily mediated by CYP3A.


  • LC/MS
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  • Protein Chemistry
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  • DNA analysis
  • Peptides
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Metabolism
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  • Drug Design
  • Drug Development
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • NMR spectroscopy
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  • Formulation Development
  • Drug Testing
  • Gas Chromatography
  • Microsoft Office
  • Biochemistry
  • Animal Handling
  • Western Blotting
  • LC-MS
  • LIMS
  • Chromatography
  • Cell Based Assays
  • GLP
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • 21 CFR Part 11
  • Biopharmaceuticals
  • DMPK
  • Biotechnology
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